The role of TiO2 NPs catalyst and packing material in removal of phenol from wastewater using an ozonized bubble column reactor
Article history: Received 14 October 2022, Received in revised form 4 November 2022, Accepted 4 November 2022, Available online 4 November 2022
Saja A. Alattar, Khalid A. Sukkar, May A. Alsaffar
Phenol is present as a highly toxic pollutant in wastewater, and it has a dangerous impact on the environment. In the present research, the phenol removal from wastewater has been achieved using four treatment methods in a bubble column reactor (treatment by ozone only, using packed bubble column reactor with ozone, utilizing ozone with TiO2 NPs catalyst in the reactor without packing, and employing ozone with TiO2 NPs in the presence of packing). The effects of phenol concentration, ozone dosage, TiO2 NPs additions, and contact time on the phenol removal efficiency were determined. It was found that at a contact time of 30 min, the phenol removal was 60.4, 74.9, 86.0, and 100% for the first, second, third, and fourth methods, respectively. The results indicated that the phenol degradation method using catalytic ozonation in a packed bubble column with TiO2 NPs is the best treatment method. This study demonstrated the advantages of using packing materials in a bubble column reactor to enhance the mass transfer process in an ozonation reaction and then increase the phenol removal efficiency. Also, the presence of TiO2 NPs as a catalyst improves the ozonation process via the production of hydroxyl routs. Additionally, the reaction kinetics of ozonation reaction manifested that the first order model is more applicable for the reaction. Eventually, the packed bubble column reactor in the presence of TiO2 NPs catalyst provided a highperformance removal of phenol with a high economic feasibility.
petroleum refineries; phenol degradation; TiO2 NPs; multiphase flow reactor; catalytic ozonation reaction