Biofuels – towards objectives of 2030 and beyond
Article history: Received 14 March 2021, Received in revised form 9 April 2021, Accepted 12 April 2021, Available online 15 April 2021
Rafał M. Łukasik
The European (and global) energy sector is in a process of profound transformation, making it essential for changes to take place that influence energy producers, operators, and regulators, as well as consumers themselves, as they are the ones who interact in the energy market. The RED II Directive changes the paradigm of the use of biomass in the heat and electricity sectors, by introducing sustainability criteria with mandatory minimum greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and by establishing energy efficiency criteria. For the transport sector, the extension of the introduction of renewables to all forms of transport (aviation, maritime, rail and road short and long distance), between 2021-2030, the strengthening of energy efficiency and the strong need to reduce GHG emissions, are central to achieving the national targets for renewables in transport, representing the main structural changes in the European decarbonisation policy in that sector. It is necessary to add that biomass is potentially the only source of renewable energy that makes it possible to obtain negative GHG emission values, considering the entire life cycle including CO2 capture and storage. Hence, this work aims to analyse the relevance of biomass for CHP and in particular, the use of biomass for biofuels that contribute to achieving carbon neutrality in 2050. The following thematic sub-areas are addressed in this work: i) the new environmental criteria for the use of biomass for electricity in the EU in light of now renewable energy directive; ii) current and emerging biofuel production technologies and their respective decarbonization potential; iii) the relevance or not of the development of new infrastructures for distribution renewable fuels, alternatives to the existing ones (biomethane, hydrogen, ethanol); iv) the identification of the necessary measures for biomass in the period 2020-2030.
Biofuel, biomass, renewable energy directive, hydrogen, ethanol